12-18 Months References

This page contains a full list of all the studies and research papers that were used in the creation of the 12-18 months Busy Brains Activity Packs. These findings inspired the compilation of the educational play ideas that are found inside. 

Are Magnets Safe For Babies? Davis, N. 2016. [Viewed: 17 August 2019] Available from:


Bedford, R. Saez de Urabain, I. R., Cheung, C.H.M., Karmiloff-Smith, A. & Smith, T. J. Toddlers’ Fine Motor Milestone Achievement Is Associated with Early Touchscreen Scrolling Frontiers in Psychology [Online] 2016. Vol.7 Page: 1108 [Viewed: 4 June 2019] Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01108/full?


Child Development and Early Learning: A Foundation for Professional Knowledge and Competencies The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine. 2015. [Viewed: 12 August 2019] Available from:



Child Development 1-2 Years Government of Western Australia: Department of Health, 2013. [Viewed: 28 May 2019] Available from: http://www.health.wa.gov.au/docreg/Education/Population/Child_Health/Growth_and_Development/HP003422_child_dev1-2years.pdf

Dancing and the Brain Edwards, S. 2019. [Viewed: 9 June 2019] Available from:  https://neuro.hms.harvard.edu/harvard-mahoney-neuroscience-institute/brain-newsletter/and-brain-series/dancing-and-brain


David L, Social Learning Theory (Bandura), in Learning Theories. 2019 [Online] [Viewed: 7 June 2019] Available from: https://www.learning-theories.com/social-learning-theory-bandura.html


Different stages of pretend play and how they relate to language development The Mouse Trap. Date unknown. [Viewed: 16 August 2019] Available from: https://the-mouse-trap.com/2006/08/30/different-stages-of-pretend-play-and-how-they-relate-to-language-development/


Dore R. A., Smith E. D., Lillard A. S. How is theory of mind useful? Perhaps to enable social pretend play  Frontiers in Psychology [Online] 2015. Vol. 6. Pages: 1559 [Viewed: 16 August 2019] Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01559/full

Forbes, S. & Plunkett, K. Infants Show Early Comprehension of Basic Colour Words Developmental Psychology [Online] PDF 2019, Vol.55, No.2, Pages: 240-249. [Viewed: 4 June 2019] Available from: https://ueaeprints.uea.ac.uk/69281/1/Accepted_manuscript.pdf

Frewin K, McEwen E, Gerson S, Bekkering H and Hunnius S What Is Going on in Babies’ Brains When They Learn to Do Something?. Frontiers for Young Minds. [Online] 2019 Vol.7 No.44. [Viewed: 2 June 2019] Available from: https://kids.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/frym.2019.00044#ref5


Goldstein, J. Play in Children’s Development, Health and Well-Being. [Online] Toy Industries of Europe. 2012. [Viewed: 13 August 2019] Available from: https://www.ornes.nl/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/Play-in-children-s-development-health-and-well-being-feb-2012.pdf


Growing Kiwifruit. Strik, B & Cahn, H. 2000. [Online] [Viewed: 15 August 2019] Available from:



How to Teach Kids About the Brain: Laying Strong Foundations for Emotional Intelligence Harrison, H. (Date unknown) Posted by Young, K. [Viewed: 6 June 2019] Available from: 



Hunnius, S., & Bekkering, H. What are you doing? How active and observational experience shape infants' action understanding. Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, [Online] NCBI. 2014. Vol.369, No.1644 [Viewed: 2 June 2019] Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4006192/


Infancy Emotional/Social Development: Emotional Oswalt, A. (date unknown 1995-2019) [Viewed: 6 June 2019] Available from: https://www.gracepointwellness.org/461-child-development-parenting-infants-0-2/article/10116-infancy-emotional-social-development-emotional-expression-and-understanding


Jones S. S. The development of imitation in infancy. Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, [Online] NCBI. 2009. Vol.364, No.1528, Pages: 2325–2335. [Viewed: 7 June 2019] Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2865075/


Lamb, M. Qualitative aspects of mother- and father-infant attachments Infant Behaviour and Development [Online] Semantic Scholar. 1978. Vol.1, Pages: 265-275 [Viewed: 2 June 2019] Available from: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/de71/4ea986380009bf8a4d81ec61565c22e54012.pdf


Lyytinen, P. , Laakso, M. , Poikkeus, A. and Rita, N. The development and predictive relations of play and language across the second year. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology [Online] Wiley Online Library. 1999, Vol.40 Pages: 177-186. [Viewed: 12 August 2019] Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/action/showCitFormats?doi=10.1111%2F1467-9450.00115


Malik F. & Marwaha R. Developmental Stages of Social Emotional Development In Children. StatPearls [Online]. NCBI 2019. [Viewed: 10 June 2019] Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK534819/


Matheis, Maya & Estabillo, Jasper. Assessment of Fine and Gross Motor Skills in Children. Handbook of Childhood Psychopathology and Developmental Disabilities Assessment [Online] ResearchGate. 2018. Pages: 467-484 [Viewed: 17 August 2019] Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/327776864_Assessment_of_Fine_and_Gross_Motor_Skills_in_Children


Movement and Cognition The relationship between gross motor skills, executive functioning, and academic achievement in children with learning disorders Westendorp, M. 2014. [Online] [Viewed: 14 August 2019] Available from: https://onderwijsdatabank.s3.amazonaws.com/downloads/Proefschrift_Marieke_Westendorp.pdf

Nelson, P. B., Adamson, L. B., & Bakeman, R. Toddlers' joint engagement experience facilitates preschoolers' acquisition of theory of mind. Developmental science [Online] NCBI. 2008. Vol.11 No.6, Pages: 847–852. [Viewed: 4 June 2019] Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2640940/

Nielsen, M. Copying actions and copying outcomes: Social learning through the second year. Developmental Psychology. [Online] APA Psychnet. 2006. Vol.42. No.3. Pages: 555-565. [Viewed: 13 August 2019] Available from: https://www2.psy.uq.edu.au/~uqmniel1/actions_and_outcomes.pdf

Nutrition & Brain Development in 1-2 Year Olds Conley, K. 2017. [Viewed: 30 May 2019] Available from: https://healthfully.com/419029-nutrition-brain-development-in-1-2-year-olds.html

Physical activity guidelines for children (under 5 years) NHS. 2018. [Viewed: 9 June 2019] Available from:



Pramling Samuelsson, I. & Asplund Carlsson, M.  The Playing Learning Child: Towards a pedagogy of early childhood. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research [Online] Taylor and Francis Online. 2008  Vol.52, No.6. Pages: 623-641 [Viewed: 14 August 2019] Available from: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/00313830802497265?needAccess=true


Quinn, S. Donnelly, S. Kidd, E. The relationship between symbolic play and language acquisition: A meta-analytic review, Developmental Review [Online] Elsevier. 2018. Vol. 49, Pages: 121-135, [Viewed: 12 August 2019] Available from: https://pure.mpg.de/rest/items/item_2602612_7/component/file_2608848/content

Scolnik, D., Atkinson, V., Hadi, M., Caulfeild, J., & Young, N. L. Words used by children and their primary caregivers for private body parts and functions. CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal = journal de l'Association medicale canadienne, [Online] NCBI. 2003. Vol.169 No.12. Pages: 1275–1279. [Viewed: 2 June 2019] Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC280581/


Smith, L. & Samuelson, L. An Attentional Learning Account of the Shape Bias: Reply to Cimpian and Markman (2005) and Booth, Waxman, and Huang (2005). Developmental psychology. [Online] ResearchGate. 2006.  Vol.42. Pages: 1339-43. [Viewed: 13 August 2019] Available from: file:///C:/Users/110717/Downloads/Smith_Samuelson_06%20(1).pdf

Strouse G. A., Nyhout A, Ganea P.A. The Role of Book Features in Young Children's Transfer of Information from Picture Books to Real-World Contexts Frontiers in Psychology [Online] 2018. Vol. 9 Pages:50. [Viewed: 10 August 2019] Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00050     

Three Unexpected Ways Dance Helps Kids! Dance Expression dance arts. 2017. [Viewed: 9 June 2019] Available from: https://www.danceexpression.com/Three-Unexpected-Ways-Dance-Helps-Kids


“Tuning In” to Others: How Young Children Develop Theory of Mind Lowry, L. 2016. [Viewed: 4 June 2019] Available from:



Verdine, B. N., Golinkoff, R. M., Hirsh-Pasek, K., Newcombe, N. S., Filipowicz, A. T., & Chang, A. Deconstructing building blocks: preschoolers' spatial assembly performance relates to early mathematical skills. Child development, [Online] NCBI. 2014. Vol.85. No.3. Pages:1062–1076. [Viewed: 9 June 2019] Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3962809/


What is Pretend Play? Stagnitti, K. 2011. [Viewed: 16 August 2019] Available from:



What to feed young children NHS. 2016. [Viewed: 30 May 2019] Available from:



When can a toddler throw and kick a ball? Hurley, K. 2017. [Viewed: 17 August 2019] Available from: https://www.momtastic.com/parenting/743593-when-can-a-toddler-throw-and-kick-a-ball/#comments-anchor

When Will Your Baby Develop The Pincer Grasp? Maheswari, S. 2019. [Viewed: 14 August 2019] Available from: https://www.momjunction.com/articles/when-will-your-baby-develop-the-pincer-grasp_00327049/#gref


Why dancing feels so good Halliwell, R. 2016. [Viewed: 9 June 2019] Available from: https://www.telegraph.co.uk/good-news/seven-seas/why-dancing-feels-good/


Why the Wild Things Are Melson, G.F. 2009. [Online] [Viewed: 14 August 2019] Available from: https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=XOKHVPptA7oC&dq=Reactions+of+Infants+and+Toddlers+to+Live+and+Toy+Animals&source=gbs_navlinks_s


Young, S. Mini, willy and pee-pee: NHS trust urges parents not to use nicknames for children’s body parts [Online] The Independent. 2017. [Viewed: 2 June 2019] Available from: https://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/nhs-children-body-private-parts-sexual-health-greater-glasglow-and-clyde-mini-willy-pee-pee-a7707171.html


5 A Day portion sizes NHS. 2018. [Viewed: 15 August 2019] Available from: