18-24 Months References

This page contains a full list of all the studies and research papers that were used in the creation of the 18-24 months Busy Brains Activity Packs. These findings inspired the compilation of the educational play ideas that are found inside. 

Alcock, K. The development of oral motor control and language. Down Syndrome Research and Practice [Online] NCBI. 2006. Vol. 11. No.1. Pages: 1-8 [Viewed: 26 August 2019] Available from: https://library.down-syndrome.org/en-gb/research-practice/11/1/development-oral-motor-control-language/

Brain areas and their functions Heath 24. 2018. [Viewed: 31 May 2019] Available from:


Brain Motor Skills Cheour, M. 2019 [Viewed: 7 June 2019] Available from:


Caldera, Y., Huston, A., & O'Brien, M. Social Interactions and Play Patterns of Parents and Toddlers with Feminine, Masculine, and Neutral Toys. Child Development [Online] JSTOR. 1989. Vol.60 No.1, Pages: 70-76. [Viewed: 31 August 2019] Available from: https://www.jstor.org/stable/1131072?read-now=1&seq=6#page_scan_tab_contents

Child Development 1-2 Years Government of Western Australia: Department of Health, 2013. [Viewed: 28 May 2019] Available from: http://www.health.wa.gov.au/docreg/Education/Population/Child_Health/Growth_and_Development/HP003422_child_dev1-2years.pdf

Children’s Development Best Start Meilleur Départ by/par health nexus santé. Date Unknown. [Viewed: 30 August 2019] Available from:


Cortical Homunculus Wikipedia (2019) [Viewed: 6 June 2019] Available from:  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cortical_homunculus


Crosser, S. Making the Most of Water Play. Young Children [Online] JSTOR. 1994, Vol.49, No.5, Pages: 28-32. [Viewed: 31 May 2019] Available from: https://www.jstor.org/stable/42725587?read-now=1&seq=3#page_scan_tab_contents


Developing Pattern Awareness with Young Children Gifford, S. [Online] [Viewed: 26 August 2019] Available from:  https://nrich.maths.org/13362


Early Introductions to Sensory Gardens: Infants and Toddlers Growing Minds: Farm to School. 2019. [Viewed: 7 June 2019] Available from: https://growing-minds.org/early-introductions-to-sensory-gardens-infants-and-toddlers/


Fletcher, K. L., & Sabo, J. Picture book reading experience and toddlers' behaviors with photographs and books. Early Childhood Research & Practice [Online] ERIC. 2006. Vol.8 No.1. [Viewed: 10 August 2019] Available from:  https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1084862.pdf


Forbes, S. & Plunkett, K. Infants Show Early Comprehension of Basic Colour Words Developmental Psychology [Online] PDF 2019, Vol.55, No.2, Pages: 240-249. [Viewed: 4 June 2019] Available from: https://ueaeprints.uea.ac.uk/69281/1/Accepted_manuscript.pdf


Getting the right balance between adult-led and child-initiated learning Thornton, L. 2015. [Viewed: 9 June 2019] Available from:



Growth Mindset and Gardening Shannon, C. 2016 [Viewed: 7 June 2019] Available from:



Hachey, A. C & Deanna L. Butler, D. L. Seeds in the Window, Soil in the Sensory Table: Science Education through Gardening and Nature-Based Play naeyc [Online] Young Children 2009

[Viewed: 7 June 2019] Available from:   https://shelburnefarms.org/sites/default/files/science_education_thru_gardening-naeyc.pdf


Hendy, L. & Toon, L Supporting drama and imaginative play in the early years [Online] Open University Press. 2001. [Viewed: 3 June 2019] Available from:  https://www.mheducation.co.uk/openup/chapters/0335206654.pdf


How children develop a sense of humour Davis, P. 2017. [Viewed: 9 June 2019] Available from:  https://theconversation.com/how-children-develop-a-sense-of-humour-77028

How children learn language—what every parent should know O’Grady, W. 2007. [Viewed: 8 June 2019] Available from:  https://linguistlist.org/pubs/cupmag/pdf/O'grady%20article.pdf


How our brain controls movement and makes new connections when parts are damaged Cunnington, R. 2016. [Viewed: 6 June 2019] Available from:   https://theconversation.com/how-our-brain-controls-movement-and-makes-new-connections-when-parts-are-damaged-63520


How playing with toy cars can fuel your child’s development and imagination Gibson, T. 2018 [Viewed: 5 June 2019] Available from:  https://www.telegraph.co.uk/cars/priceless-motorsport/playing-with-toy-cars/


Huggins, V. & Wickett, K. Crawling and Toddling in the Outdoors: Very Young Children’s Learning in Waite, S. Children Learning Outside of the Classroom: from birth to eleven. 2011 [Online] SAGE  [Viewed: 6 June 2019] Available from:



Imagination & Creativity 18 - 24 m Tiny Love. 2019. [Viewed: 28 August 2019] Available from: 



Jones S. S. The development of imitation in infancy. Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, [Online] NCBI. 2009. Vol.364, No.1528, Pages: 2325–2335. [Viewed: 7 June 2019] Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2865075/


Kingsnorth, S. & Schmuckler, M. Walking skill versus walking experience as a predictor of barrier crossing in toddlers. Infant Behavior and Development. [Online] Elsevier. 2000. Vol.23. Pages: 331-350. [Viewed: 28 August 2019] Available from: https://utsc.utoronto.ca/~marksch/Kingsnorth%20&%20Schmuckler%202000.pdf


Kwon, K-A. & Bingham, G. & Lewsader, J. & J., Hyun-Joo & Elicker, J. Structured Task Versus Free Play: The Influence of Social Context on Parenting Quality, Toddlers’ Engagement with Parents and Play Behaviors, and Parent–Toddler Language Use. Child & Youth Care Forum. [Online] Springer Link. 2013. Vol.42. No. 3. Pages: 207-224 [Viewed: 9 June 2019] Available from: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10566-013-9198-x


Leclère, C., Viaux, S., Avril, M., Achard, C., Chetouani, M., Missonnier, S., & Cohen, D. Why synchrony matters during mother-child interactions: a systematic review. PloS one [Online] NCBI. 2014. Vol.9. No.12. [Viewed: 20 August 2019] Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4254467/


Marcinowski, E. How Does Handedness Affect the Development of Construction Skill from 10-24 months? 2015 [Online] [Viewed: 31 August 2019] Available from: https://libres.uncg.edu/ir/uncg/f/Marcinowski_uncg_0154D_11789.pdf


Math Talk with Infants and Toddlers Naeyc. 2012. [Online] [Viewed: 26 August 2019] Available from: https://www.naeyc.org/our-work/families/math-talk-infants-and-toddlers


Mather E. Novelty, attention, and challenges for developmental psychology. Frontiers in psychology [Online] NCBI. 2013, Vol.4, No. 491. [Viewed: 31 May 2019] Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3730051/


Motor Skills Vered, M. 2012. [Viewed: 6 June 2019] Available from: http://www.brainskills.co.uk/motorskills.html


Nelson, P. B., Adamson, L. B., & Bakeman, R. Toddlers' joint engagement experience facilitates preschoolers' acquisition of theory of mind. Developmental science [Online] NCBI. 2008. Vol.11 No.6, Pages: 847–852. [Viewed: 4 June 2019] Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2640940/


Parker, S., Mitchell, R. & Boccia, M. Self-Awareness in Humans and Animals: Developmental Perspectives.  1994. [Online] Cambridge University Press. 2006 [Viewed: 6 June 2019] Available from: https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=jnEw6sPHKpoC&lpg=PA239&dq=Shadow%20recognition%20in%20human%20infants&pg=PA239#v=onepage&q=Shadow%20recognition%20in%20human%20infants&f=false 


Pruden, S. M., Hirsh-Pasek, K., Golinkoff, R. M., & Hennon, E. A. The birth of words: ten-month-olds learn words through perceptual salience. Child development, [Online] NCBI. 2016. Vol.77. No.2. Pages: 266–280. [Viewed: 8 June 2019] Available from:  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4621011/


Ravn, K., & Gelman, S. Rule Usage in Children's Understanding of "Big" and "Little". Child Development [Online] JSTOR. 1984. Vol.55 No.6, Pages: 2141-2150. [Viewed: 31 August 2019] Available from: https://www.jstor.org/stable/1129787?read-now=1&refreqid=excelsior%3A344b21bd6759e1ebd024595b38691e87&seq=9#page_scan_tab_contents


Read aloud to your children to boost their vocabulary Merga, M.K. 2019. [Viewed: 30 May 2019] Available from: https://phys.org/news/2019-02-aloud-children-boost-vocabulary.html


Ricciuti, H. Object Grouping And Selective Ordering Behavior In Infants 12 to 24 Months Old. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly of Behavior and Development [Online] JSTOR. 1965. Vol.11 No.2, Pages: 129-148. [Viewed: 31 August 2019] Available from:  https://www.jstor.org/stable/23082702?read-now=1&seq=19#page_scan_tab_contents


Rittle-Johnson, B. & Fyfe, E. & Hofer, K. & Farran, D. Early Math Trajectories: Low-Income Children's Mathematics Knowledge From Ages 4 to 11. Child Development. [Online] ResearchGate 2016. Vol.88. No.5 [Viewed: 26 August 2019] Available from:   https://www.researchgate.net/publication/311441681_Early_Math_Trajectories_Low-Income_Children's_Mathematics_Knowledge_From_Ages_4_to_11


Smith, L. B., & Jones, S. S. Symbolic play connects to language through visual object recognition. Developmental science [Online] NCBI. 2011. Vol.14. No.5. Pages: 1142–1149. [Viewed: 3 June 2019] Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3482824/


Stacking Blocks Developmental Milestones and Awesome Fun Activities. Adam & Mila. 2019 [Viewed: 31 August 2019] Available from:  



Teddies, Dolls and Toy animals – Encouraging Early Language Part 1 Kyffin, A. 2017. [Online] [Viewed: 20 August 2019] Available from:



The National Strategies: Early Years. Mark Making Matters [Online] Department for Children, Schools and Families. 2008. [Viewed: 3 June 2019] Available from: h https://www.foundationyears.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/Mark_Marking_Matters.pdf


Understanding Concepts. Kidsense. 2019. [Online] [Viewed: 20 August 2019] Available from:



Water Play: Wet and Wonderful Dorrell, A. 2008. [Viewed: 31 May 2019] Available from: http://www.earlychildhoodnews.com/earlychildhood/article_view.aspx?ArticleID=374


Why do toddlers want to read the same book over and over again? Yanek, D. 2018 [Viewed: 30 May 2019] Available from: https://www.todaysparent.com/toddler/toddler-behaviour/why-toddlers-want-to-read-the-same-book/


Your Child’s Brain Development: 18 to 24 Months Mead Johnson Nutrition. 2019. [Viewed: 8 August 2019] Available from:  


5 interesting benefits of Water Play in Early Childhood Development Kids Club. 2018. [Viewed: 4 June 2019] Available from:



10 Amazing Facts About the Infant Brain Rosenfield, J. 2015. [Viewed: 8 August 2019] Available from:  http://mentalfloss.com/article/70105/10-amazing-facts-about-infant-brain


10 Tips for Selecting Toys for Your Speech Delayed Child Yeh, K. 2013. [Viewed: 27 August 2019] Available from: https://www.friendshipcircle.org/blog/2013/06/25/10-tips-for-selecting-toys-for-your-speech-delayed-child/


10 toddler balance milestones that predict future quality of life Adam & Mila. 2019. [Viewed: 2 June 2019] Available from: https://www.adam-mila.com/milestones/gross-motor-skills/balancing/