2-3 Years References

This page contains a full list of all the studies and research papers that were used in the creation of the 2-3 years Busy Brains Activity Packs. These findings inspired the compilation of the educational play ideas that are found inside. 


About Those Crayons What Parents Should Know. Jaime, Miss. (Date unknown) [Viewed: 23 June 2019] Available from: https://www.missjaimeot.com/about-those-crayons-what-parents-should-know/


Baby’s Brain Begins Now: Conception to Age 3 The Urban Child Institute. 2019.

[Viewed: 11 June 2019] Available from: http://www.urbanchildinstitute.org/why-0-3/baby-and-brain

Baumeister, R. F., Heatherton, T. F., & Tice, D. M. Losing Control: How And Why People Fail At Self-Regulation. San Diego, CA, US: Academic Press. 1994.

Bryant P.E. & Bradley, L & Maclean, Morag & Crossland, J. Nursery Rhymes, Phonological Skills and Reading. Journal of child language. [Online] ResearchGate. 1989. Vol.16. No. 2. Pages: 407-28. [Viewed: 13 June 2019] Available from: file:///C:/Users/110717/Downloads/BBMandC1989NurseryRhymesphonologicalskillsandreadingJCL16407-428.pdf


Build Your Child’s Vocabulary Lowry, L. 2016. [Viewed: 14 June 2019] Available from:



Carlsen, A. Kindergarten Fine Motor Skills and Executive Function: Two Non-Academic Predictors of Academic Achievement Semantic Scholar 2010 [Viewed: 23 June 2019] Available from: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/670b/b7ec53bb5600f6cd817882cc1ef2533669f5.pdf


Day, M. Developmental Trends in Visual Scanning Elsevier [Online] Science Direct 1975 Vol. 10. Pages 153-193 [Viewed: 16 June 2019] Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0065240708600105


Deep Breathing Exercises For Kids. Halloran, J. 2015 [Viewed: 16 June 2019] Available from:  https://copingskillsforkids.com/deep-breathing-exercises-for-kids


Developing Cutting Skills PLD Learning Resources (Date Unknown) [Viewed: 23 June 2019] Available from: https://www.healthygc.com.au/MedicareLocal/media/Site-Pages-Content/Nurse/Scissor_Cutting_Skills.pdf


Dinehart, L. Handwriting in early childhood education: Current research and future implications. Journal of Early Childhood Literacy. [Online] ResearchGate. 2014. Vol.15. No.1. [Viewed: 23 June 2019] Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/264763007_Handwriting_in_early_childhood_education_Current_research_and_future_implications


Fitzpatrick, C. & Pagani, L.S. Toddler Working Memory Skills Predict Kindergarten School Readiness,

Intelligence, Elsevier [Online] Science Direct. 2012. Volume 40, Issue 2, Pages: 205-212. [Viewed: 14 June 2019] Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160289611001449


How to Teach Patience to your Toddler Wong, R. R. 2019. [Viewed: 25 June 2019] Available from:



Intro to Working Memory University of Cambridge. 2019 [Viewed: 16 June 2019] Available from: https://www.cne.psychol.cam.ac.uk/math-memory/intro-to-working-memory-part-1


Ornkloo, Helena & Hofsten, Claes. Fitting Objects Into Holes: On The Development Of Spatial Cognition Skills. Developmental psychology. [Online] ResearchGate. 2007. Vol.43. Pages: 404-16. [Viewed: 22 June 2019] Available from: file:///C:/Users/110717/Downloads/Fitting_objects_into_holes_On_the_development_of_s.pdf


Padilla-Walker, L.M & Carlo, G. Prosocial Development: A Multidimensional Approach Oxford University Press, 2014.

Putkinen V., Saarikivi K. and Tervaniemi M. Do Informal Musical Activities Shape Auditory Skill Development in Preschool-Age Children? Frontiers in Psychology [Online] 2013 Vol. 4 Page: 572  [Viewed: 22 June 2019] Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00572/full


Rheingold, H. Little Children's Participation in the Work of Adults, a Nascent Prosocial Behavior. Child Development [Online] JSTOR 1982 Vol.53 No.1, Pages: 114-125. [Viewed: 20 June 2019] Available from: https://www.jstor.org/stable/1129643?read-now=1&seq=11#page_scan_tab_contents


Rowe M. L. A Longitudinal Investigation of the Role of Quantity and Quality of Child-Directed Speech in Vocabulary Development. Child development [Online] NCBI 2012 Vol.83 No.5 Pages: 1762–1774. [Viewed: 14 June 2019] Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3440540/


Rule, A.C. & Stewart, R.A. Effects of Practical Life Materials on Kindergartners’ Fine Motor Skills Early Childhood Education Journal [Online] SpringerLink 2002 Vol.30 No.1. [Viewed: 19 June 2019] Available from: http://www.bwgriffin.com/gsu/courses/edur7130/readings/QuasiExperimental_5.pdf


Slaughter, V., Itakura, S., Kutsuki, A. and Siegal, M. Learning to Count Begins in Infancy: Evidence from 18 Month Olds' Visual Preferences Proceedings of the Royal Society Biological Sciences [Online] The Royal Society Publishing. 2011. Vol.278. Pages: 2979–2984 [Viewed: 20 June 2019] Available from: https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/full/10.1098/rspb.2010.2602


Son, S., & Meisels, S. The Relationship of Young Children's Motor Skills to Later Reading and Math Achievement. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly [Online] JSTOR. 2006. Vol.52. No.4. Pages: 755-778. [Viewed: 23 June 2019] Available from: https://www.jstor.org/stable/23096032?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents


Son, Seung-Hee & Meisels, Samuel. The Relationship of Young Children's Motor Skills to Later School Achievement. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly [Online] ResearchGate 2006. Vol. 52. Pages: 755-778. [Viewed: 23 June 2019] Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/265869252_The_Relationship_of_Young_Children's_Motor_Skills_to_Later_School_Achievement


The Science of Storytelling: What Listening to a Story Does to Our Brains Widrich, L. 2016. [Viewed: 24 June 2019] Available from: https://buffer.com/resources/science-of-storytelling-why-telling-a-story-is-the-most-powerful-way-to-activate-our-brains


The 10 Highest-Jumping Animals in the World Turner, J. 2017. [Viewed: 14 June 2019] Available from: https://www.animalwised.com/the-10-highest-jumping-animals-in-the-world-943.html


Training Working Memory: Why and how Klemm, W.R. 2012. . [Viewed: 17 June 2019] Available from: https://www.psychologytoday.com/gb/blog/memory-medic/201203/training-working-memory-why-and-how


Troseth G.L. & DeLoache J.S. The Medium Can Obscure the Message: Young Children's Understanding of Video Child Development. [Online] JSTOR 1998 Vol. 69 No.4 Pages: 950-65. [Viewed: 12 June 2019] Available from: https://www.jstor.org/stable/1132355?read-now=1&seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents


Vöhringer, I. A., Kolling, T. , Graf, F. , Poloczek, S. , Fassbender, I. , Freitag, C. , Lamm, B. , Suhrke, J. , Teiser, J. , Teubert, M. , Keller, H. , Lohaus, A. , Schwarzer, G. and Knopf, M. The Development of Implicit Memory From Infancy to Childhood: On Average Performance Levels and Interindividual Differences. Child Development. [Online] Wiley Online Library. 2018 Vol.89 Pages: 370-382. [Viewed: 17 June 2019] Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/action/showCitFormats?doi=10.1111%2Fcdev.12749

What Is Synaptic Pruning? Cafasso, J. 2018 [Viewed: 11 June 2019] Available from: https://www.healthline.com/health/synaptic-pruning#timeline


When Do Kids Learn to Dress Themselves? The Developmental Progression of Self-Dressing Skills. Kiley, C. 2016 [Viewed: 18 June 2019] Available from: http://mamaot.com/when-do-kids-learn-to-dress-themselves-developmental-progression-of-self-dressing-skills/


When Should a Child Know Their Colors Brad. 2016. [Viewed: 15 June 2019] Available from:



What Music Should My Child Listen To? Brown, L. 2012. [Viewed: 22 June 2019] Available from: https://www.pbs.org/parents/thrive/what-music-should-my-child-listen-to


Why Children Love Secret Hiding Places Junior. 2016. [Viewed: 13 June 2019] Available from: https://www.juniormagazine.co.uk/wellbeing/why-children-love-secret-hiding-places/


Why is Den Building Important for Children’s Development? Kimberly. 2016. [Viewed: 13 June 2019] Available from: http://www.earlyyearscareers.com/eyc/enabling-environment/den-building-important-childrens-development/#comments


Why we should teach our children patience Golsteyn, B. Grönqvist H. & Lindahl, L. 2014. [Viewed: 25 June 2019] Available from: https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2014/08/patience-children-research-lifetime-outcomes/


Working Memory: What It Is and How It Works Rosen, P. 2019. [Viewed: 17 June 2019] Available from:  https://www.understood.org/en/learning-attention-issues/child-learning-disabilities/executive-functioning-issues/working-memory-what-it-is-and-how-it-works


Wynn, Karen. Children's Acquisition of Number Words and the Counting System. Cognitive Psychology. [Online] CiteSeerX 1992. Vol.24. Pages: 220-251. [Viewed: 20 June 2019] Available from:  http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=


Young Explorers - Exploratory Play Lindon, J. 2000 [Viewed: 18 June 2019] Available from:



Your Brain on Fiction Paul, A. M. 2012 [Viewed: 24 June 2019] Available from:



3 Breathing Exercises to Calm Kids of All Ages Pelini, S. Date Unknown. [Viewed: 16 June 2019] Available from:https://www.mother.ly/parenting/3-breathing-exercises-to-calm-kids-of-all-ages


6 The Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) Open Learn. 2018. [Viewed: 18 June 2019] Available from: https://www.open.edu/openlearn/languages/understanding-language-and-learning/content-section-6